Monilia is the name of a fungus. It also goes by the name, candida. Females not uncommonly get this infection in the vaginal tract. This infection can also occur in the esophagus, especially when a patient is on chemotherapy, antibiotics or when the immune system is injured as in HIV. In this picture you see typical white fungal fluffs adherent to and scattered throughout the esophagus. As bad as this may look, it is usually easy to treat. The main symptom is difficulty in swallowing.